Example of writing academic essays evidence

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Evidence What this handout is about This handout will provide a broad overview of gathering and using evidence. It will help you decide what counts as evidence, put evidence to work in your writing, and determine whether you have enough evidence. It will also offer links to additional resources. Introduction Many papers that you write in college will require you to make an argument ; this means that you must take a position on the subject you are discussing and support that position article source evidence.

What counts as evidence? Before you begin gathering information for possible use as evidence in your argument, you need to be sure that you understand the purpose of your assignment. If you are working on a project for a class, look carefully at the assignment prompt. It may give you clues about what sorts of evidence you will need.

Does the instructor mention any particular books you should use in writing your paper or the names of any authors who have written about your topic? How long should your paper here longer works may require more, or more varied, evidence?

What themes please click for source topics come up in the text of the prompt? Our handout on understanding writing assignments can help you interpret your assignment. What matters to instructors? Instructors in different academic fields expect different kinds of arguments and evidence—your chemistry paper might include graphs, charts, statistics, and other quantitative data as evidence, whereas your English paper might include passages from a novel, examples of recurring symbols, or discussions of characterization in the novel.

Consider what kinds of sources and evidence you have seen in course readings and lectures. What are primary and secondary sources? A note on terminology: Primary sources include original documents, photographs, interviews, and so forth. Secondary sources present information that has already been processed or interpreted by someone else. A movie review from a magazine essay about global warming and climate change a collection of essays about the film would be secondary sources.

Depending on the context, the same item could be either a primary or a secondary source: Where can I find evidence?

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Here are some examples of sources of information and tips about how to use them in gathering evidence. Print and electronic sources Books, journals, websites, example of writing academic essays evidence, magazines, and documentary films are some of the most common sources of evidence for academic writing. Our handout on evaluating print sources will help you choose your print sources wisely, and the library has a tutorial on evaluating both print sources and websites.

A librarian can help you find sources that are appropriate for the type of assignment you are completing. Observation Sometimes you can directly observe the thing you are interested in, by watching, listening to, touching, tasting, or smelling it. Surveys Surveys allow you to find out some of what a group of people thinks about a topic. Experiments Experimental data serve as the primary form of scientific evidence. For scientific experiments, you should follow the specific guidelines of the discipline you are studying. For writing in other fields, more informal experiments might be acceptable as click at this page. For example, if you want to prove that food choices in a cafeteria are affected by gender norms, you might ask classmates to click at this page those norms on purpose and observe how others react.

What would happen if a football player were eating dinner with his teammates and he brought a small salad and diet drink to the table, all the while murmuring about his waistline and wondering how many fat grams the salad dressing contained? Personal experience Using your own experiences can be a powerful way to appeal to your readers. You should, however, use personal experience only when it is appropriate to your topic, your writing goals, and your audience. Personal experience should not be your only form of evidence in most papers, and some disciplines frown on using personal experience at all.

Example of writing academic essays evidence

For example, a story about the microscope you received as a Christmas gift when you were nine years old is probably not applicable to your biology lab report. Using evidence in an argument Does evidence speak for itself? After you introduce evidence into your writing, you must say why and go here this evidence supports your argument.

In other words, you have to explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: As writers, we sometimes assume that our readers already know what we are talking about; we may be wary of elaborating too much because we think the point is obvious. Try to spell out the connections that you were making in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it.

Remember, you can always cut prose from your paper later if you decide that you are stating the obvious. Here are some questions you can ask yourself about a particular bit of evidence: Why is it interesting? Why should anyone care? What does this information imply? What are the consequences of thinking this way or looking at a problem this way?

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How does it come to be the way it is? Why is this information important? Why does it matter? How is this idea related to my thesis? What connections exist between them? Does it support my thesis?

Feedback Good, constructively critical feedback can give you excellent guidance on how to improve your essay writing. Short to middle length sentences are almost always preferable to longer ones. Here are some examples of sources of information and tips about how to use them accademic gathering evidence. A note on terminology: The continued popularity of their work today shows that they clearly managed to achieve plenty of interest and variety within that basic structure. The essay structure is not an end in itself, but a means to an end: A much higher level of skill is clearly needed example of writing academic essays evidence critical writing than for descriptive writing, and this is reflected in the higher marks it is given.

If so, how does it example of writing academic essays evidence that? Can I give an example to illustrate this point? Answering these questions may help you explain how your evidence is related to your overall argument. How can I incorporate evidence into my paper? There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary.

Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions. Here are some tips to help you decide when to use quotations: Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to format quotations. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in example of writing academic essays evidence of your argument.

Paraphrasing When you paraphrase, you take a specific section of a text and put it into your own words. Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph.

  • Brief recap The characters of Macbeth and Faustus are very similar in many respects; for example they both willingly follow a path that leads to their damnation.
  • What themes or topics come up in the text of the prompt?
  • Shorter words are often preferable to longer words, unless there is some specific vocabulary that you need to include to demonstrate your skill.

When might you want to paraphrase? Paraphrase when you are supporting a example of writing academic essays evidence point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when "example of writing academic essays evidence" paragraph in a source is especially relevant.

Paraphrase when you want to comment on a particular example that another writer uses. Summary When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text. Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a xeample. A summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material. Statistics, data, charts, graphs, photographs, illustrations Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you still need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make.

Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open axademic interpretation.

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Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Do I need more evidence? Here are some techniques you can use to review your draft and assess your use of evidence. Make a reverse outline A reverse outline is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis. When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter outline-like form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper. The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways. First, it lets you see where you have dealt with too many topics in one paragraph in general, you should have one main idea per paragraph.

Second, the reverse outline can help you see where you need eidence evidence to prove your point or more analysis of that evidence. Third, the reverse outline can help you write your topic sentences: For tips on making a reverse outline, see our handout on organization. Color code your paper You will need three highlighters or colored pencils for this acadsmic.

Use one color to highlight general assertions. These will typically be the topic sentences in your paper. Next, use another color to highlight the specific evidence you provide for each assertion including quotations, paraphrased or summarized material, statistics, examples, and your own ideas. Lastly, use another color to highlight analysis of your evidence. Which assertions are key to your overall argument? Which ones are especially contestable?


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How much evidence do you have for each assertion? In general, you should have at least as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper runs the risk of being more summary than argument. The more controversial an assertion is, the more evidence you may need to provide in order to persuade your reader. After each section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. If your friend is acting like a child, he or she will question every sentence, even seemingly self-explanatory ones.

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