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How to write a research paper A free guide from Essay UK This guide covers research papers, and provides advice on forming a title for your research paper, how to plan your paper before you start, and filtering material for your research paper.
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What is a research paper? The terms 'research paper' and ' term paper ' are frequently used interchangeably. However, the terms do not mean the same thing. Hence 'research papers' may be written at any level before, during and after attending universitythey may be published works in a professional journal and they may represent the results of practical research, which esay not ordinarily be conducted for a term paper.
This is the context in which we will discuss the about essay writing in english with subtitles 'research paper' herein. A research paper is an academic written assignment that is the product of a research project.
This may span days, months, weeks or even years. Typically, research papers will involve the examination of a particular issue, and discuss: Subyitles background or history of that issue Any outstanding questions relating to the issue the research paper will commonly focus on one particular question and seek to establish evidence to answer this The current data and statistics relating to the issue The problems relating to the issue as revealed by the data The problems relating to the issue as revealed by practical primary research i.
We will look at each of these elements in turn, in order to understand how a student or professional can write a good research paper.
Such citations are called author-centred citations. We gave some of the reasons for this before: The best way to scan whether a book is relevant to what you're writing about is to look through the index. If, however, your method is not working, then feel free to try this method.
Forming a title for your research paper Unlike most types of assignment, the research paper title is usually decided upon AFTER you have completed the paper. This is so that the title accurately reflects the contents of the paper. However, your research paper will need a working title. You should therefore return to this section when you have completed your paper.
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You then need to pick a concise, accurate title for your research paper that will make readers want to look at your content, help others find your paper in databases, and explain exactly what is covered by the paper with a high degree of accuracy. A research paper will commonly have a title of words in length. Every word must be necessary for the title - and so for example, 'Project on Example concise research paper titles: Unemployment by Constituency Transport in New York Research Paper Subtitle Unlike a research paper or essay, it is click common to give your research paper a subtitle.
This explains your title more subtites, puts it in context and qualifies the extent, or scope, of the research. Example subtitles relating to the above example titles: But before you start, a key thing to bear in mind is that you MUST reference all material that you use in your paper. So the first thing to do is find out what referencing style is required either by your more info or, if you are writing a research paper for a journal, by that journal and start to record the location of your sources using that referencing style.
If you do this as you perform the research, you'll save yourself hours of time later on. Here are some research tips to get you started: RESEARCH STEP 1 Form a list of keywords from your research paper's working title Use a thesaurus to find words that mean the same thing as your list of keywords RESEARCH STEP 2 Most students will begin researching using the Internet and indeed, this is a great way to get ideas for your research paper. So start with Googletype in enflish keywords and bookmark the most relevant information sites that appear in relation to the issue.
Then identify link current matters that relate to your issue from those sites. Internet websites provide a fast source of up-to-date information but unfortunately they are not a reliable source. Use a search of the web as a starting point but unless the website is hosted and edited by a 'reliable' organization such as the Governmentdon't rely on its contents as a source for recycled paper shopping bags with handles research paper.
Find another means of verifying the information. RESEARCH STEP 3 Now you've identified a list of issues and current debates for your research paper, you iwth to find some quality source material.
Your university may also provide you with access to a library and you can then search through their databases to find the most relevant and recent books for your about essay writing in english with subtitles paper. The wiith method of writing a paper is just one method. If you do not follow the directions, you are throwing away easy marks. Beginning to Write the Paper — Use Point Form: People who collude do so secretly, as they know that the lecturer would not be happy. Essay Writing Practice Source Reading: The Last Glacial Maximum in the North Sea: If you are happy with your paper, begin the final process of completing the paper.
The first stage is to find the most recent books written about the issue you're researching. Whilst books are not as up-to-date as journals and articles, they will contain valid points-of-view that need to be considered. So where do you find books for your research paper? Google Books - this is a good place to start as it about essay writing in english with subtitles several thousand books that have been scanned in, together with details and snippet views of those which haven't been scanned in. Fssay university may also provide you with access to a library and you can then search through their databases to essau the most relevant and recent books for your research paper.
The best way to scan whether a book is relevant to what you're writing about is to look through the index. You'll quickly see if there's anything useful in the book for your research paper. RESEARCH STEP 4 Now you have the latest books for your research paper, you need to start looking for journals. These really should be your main type of source material. Open University Web Resources is an excellent list of such journal databases, although you'll subtigles an ATHENS password to use some of them. Our favorite journal databases for consistently excellent and up-to-date content are: Locate articles relating to your subject and check out the bibliography for further ehglish which you might be able to locate online without passwords.
You can sometimes obtain a free trial of these databases giving you temporary read article. Also, the four websites also have a good number of journals that you do not need a subtitoes to view. These are often indicated by a special icon. For ejglish from Eng,ish Wkth you're lucky enough to have an athens password, your first stop will be Lexis Professional formerly known as LexisNexis Executive which contains enhlish full text of newspapers and other news sources worldwide; as well as company data, annual reports and business directory information from Disclosure, Extel, ICC, and Worldscope.
If you don't have an athens password, any good news site will suffice - US NewsCNN etc.
Of course, if you are researching an issue which affects another country, you should be looking at that country's main news website. What you are looking for is any current developments that may affect the research for your paper. This may be statistics released by the Government, consultation papers, proposed changes in legislation, current developments or debates etc. Don't forget, newspapers are NOT a reliable source of information. You are using them to find information for your research paper but you should substantiate this writinb once you have found it.
If it is reported that the Government has released some statistics, go about essay writing in english with subtitles find those on the Government wfiting. If a consultation click here has been released, click and find the paper and read it.
Filtering the material for your research paper The five step research process reveals a lot of information for your research paper and you'll need to filter it down, or you'll have too much to analyses. This does, however, beg the question - how many sources should you use? The answer to this depends on the level of your research paper. If it is an assignment for your degree, you should look at using roughly 9 quality sources per 2, words. If it is for some post-graduate course, you can easily double that.
A writlng research paper for publication might use sources per 2, words.
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The emphasis in all cases, however, should be on quality and not on quantity. Abut good selection of research material from a variety of quality sources i. To help filter the information you have found for your research paper, you are going to need to evaluate its quality. This withh a consideration of ln The source is a quality source - it's reliable, dependable and highly likely to be accurate.
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The source is unbiased - watch newspapers which may have political views. Ask yourself if the writer has presented a balance argument, or has deliberately played down one side of the argument to prove his own personal views. The source is relevant to your research - does it specifically tie in with your working title? You haven't already got enough material to prove what this source proves - if you aim to back up each of your arguments in your research paper writin pieces of evidence for a very high quality paper or at least 2 for a student paper, writinf you abuot filter out any material that is excessive abkut this.
Creating an outline for your research paper A basic outline will look something like this: Working title as discussed previously Purpose - this is a short statement to say what the paper is for. It helps people who are looking for research papers themselves to assess the relevancy of your research paper to their studies.
This paper shows the number of people claiming benefits recorded as resident in each constituency in the United States in Julytogether with comparisons with the levels in July and July This paper also presents residence-based unemployment rates for all constituencies in the United States. Methodology - this is a statement of how you will carry out your research. You have already done some 'secondary research' but you may also wish to carry out wriiting research' for your paper. Primary research sometimes called 'empirical research' is research you carry out yourself and data that is produced as a result of this, which has never been published before.
Be careful before carrying out research over the phone or through the post though - some states allow people to restrict how they are contacted. Secondary research is the study of data that exists already such as books, journals, statistics, other research papers, websites, news reports, magazine abput etc. You have already carried out secondary research through the five step research process. So which research method is best for your research paper? Instinctively you may think that the primary data will provide the most interesting results.
However, if your time and budget are both limited, do not be tempted to embark on a study. You will do far better analyzing existing studies than producing a low-quality study that is limited in its value due to the amount of time and finance you can devote to it. Scope of research - all research is going to be limited to certain factors. A paper on 'crime' cannot investigate all types of crime, committed by all sexes, all ages, globally. So how are you going to limit your paper? Click the following article areas of the issue will you look at and which will you discard?
Your statement of scope will be about words long and explain exactly what you are going to cover in your research, essaay what you are going to leave out usually with brief reasons.
If, however, your method is not working, then feel free to try this method. Also, the four websites about essay writing in english with subtitles have a good number of journals that you do not need a subscription to view. Nutrition and health aspects of chocolate. These words are example subtitels a transitional phrase — others include "furthermore," "moreover," but also "by contrast" and "on the other hand" — and are the hallmark of good writing. You can also download it as a pdf document. By following this simple recipe, you will ensure a good grade:
If you are carrying out primary research, you may want to set out the limitations of this here too. Introduction - this is where you set the scene for your reader.
You explain what you are researching and why. You identify the issues you will be looking into and you say what you are going to prove. It is therefore a good idea to write this last, along with your final title! You might want to explain abot development of the issue and how particular matters have arisen.