Essay about the united kingdom known as
Formally known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Orientation Identification. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the formal name of the sovereign state governed by Parliament in London. The term "United Kingdom" normally xbout understood to include Northern Ireland; the term "Great Britain" refers to the island of Britain and its constituent nations of England, Wales, and Scotland but does not include Northern Ireland. Any citizen of Great Britain may be referred to as essay about the united kingdom known as Briton.
The land area of Great Britain is 89, square milessquare kilometerswith an additional 5, square miles 13, square kilometers in Northern Ireland, giving it one of the highest population densities in the Western world.
Although the country lies mostly at the latitude of Labrador in the western Atlantic, the climate is tempered by the Gulf Stream and does not have extremes of summer heat or winter cold. Except for some areas of barren upland and bog, most of the land is suitable for agriculture and has been grazed or cultivated since the Bronze Age. The natural vegetation is mixed oak woodland, but most of the terrain has been cleared for agriculture or for shipbuilding and charcoal for smelting. The essay about the united kingdom known as evidence of human settlement is at Boxgrove, Sussex, and the island may have been continuously occupied foryears.
The population is approximately 55 aabout The nation's cultural diversity has been increased by migration within the British Isles and by immigration from Europe aobut overseas. UntilIreland was incorporated within the United Kingdom. A wide variety of other Irish people spent periods in Britain, which had a more highly developed economy than Ireland. From onward, the censuses of Scotland, England, and Essay about the united kingdom known as have enumerated Irish-born people in every part of the country. Similarly, Scottish and Welsh people have settled in England.
Most British people have ancestries that are mixtures of the four nationalities of the British Isles. Before and after World War II, political and religious refugees and displaced persons from the Baltic countries, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary were offered shelter in Britain and remained, along with some prisoners of war. Other immigrants of European ancestry who were born in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and South and East Africa, along with Greek and Turkish Cypriots, also settled in Britain.
After the late s, many of non-European overseas immigrants arrived, predominantly from the colonies, including people of Indian and African ancestry from the West Indies and Guyana; people from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh; and Chinese from Hong Kong and Singapore. The census, the first to uniged ethnic background, enumerated three million Britons of non-European birth or ancestry. Regional and cultural relationships are expressed in marked linguistic differences. Although the language has been modified by a gradual convergence toward "estuary English" a United Kingdom less formal variety of southeastern speech, and educational and socioeconomic factors, it is possible to unites people's geographical origins by the way they speak.
In some areas, there are significant differences in speech patterns from one city or county to its neighbor.
These languages include Scots Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish, and Irish commonly referred to as the Celtic languages ; there is also the Old Norse language of the Northern Isles Orkney and especially Shetland and the Norman French patois of the Channel Islands. In Wales, 80 percent of the people speak English as their first or only language and those who speak Welsh as their first language are bilingual. In Scotland, Gaelic is not a national symbol because it was never spoken in some essay about the united kingdom known as of that country.
People in the Northern Isles are bilingual in English and an unwritten creolized form of Old Norse; in the Channel Islands, the Norman French patois is nearly extinct; and in Cornwall, there essay about the united kingdom known as no natural speakers of Cornish, although the language has been reconstructed. In Northern Ireland, the Irish language has been reintroduced as a means of revitalizing Celtic pride among Belfast Catholics.
Symbolic attachment may reinforce localism or take the form of personal commitments that extend across socioeconomic strata. Support for soccer and rugby teams became significant during the twentieth century, and teams now command fierce local loyalties as sport has come to symbolize male pride and self-image in a society where mining and manufacturing have declined. Forms of personal commitment that transcend locality include vegetarianism and environmentalism: On the fringes of society, especially among the young, there has been a significant growth in new religious movements, which include radical environmentalist cults, New Age paganism, anarchism, anticapitalist and antinuclear groups, and adopted Far Eastern and South Asian source and belief systems, including martial arts cults.
Cults based on popular music and performers engender personal commitment in culturally patterned ways. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.
The United Kingdom was formed by Acts of Union between England and Wales and England, Wales, and Scotlanduniting the three nations under a single monarchy and legislative council Parliament in London. Afterthe island of Ireland came under British influence, and it became a colonial dependency in The British and Irish parliaments were united in A separatist movement led to the dissolution of the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in ; twenty-six of Ireland's thirty-two counties became the independent Irish Free State later the Republic of Irelandwith six of the nine counties of Ulster remaining within the United Kingdom.
The present-day nation also includes the Channel Islands off the coast of France and the Isle of Man between Britain and Ireland, which are substantially self-governing. Northern Ireland and Scotland have separate legal and educational systems and issue their own currency; Wales is fully incorporated within the English legal, educational, and banking systems. Recent referendums in Scotland and Wales have resulted in the establishment of a Scottish Parliament which is still under the general jurisdiction of London but has limited local taxraising powers, and the Welsh Assembly, which does not have tax-raising powers.
The native tribes in the central and eastern parts of England were conquered by the Romans in 55 B. The numbers of Romans were never great, but the indigenous upper classes became Romanized and spoke Latin. The principal Roman towns had baths, temples, amphitheaters, and forums and some of the roads designed to connect Roman towns are still in use.
With the departure of the Romans, the British Isles were invaded by a succession of warlike peoples from the European mainland, including the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes; there were also persistent Danish raids. All migrations influenced the native Britons, essay about the united kingdom known as can be seen in the English language, which is an amalgam of the languages spoken by the waves of colonists. This turbulence ended with the Norman Conquest in A new line of kings attempted to extend control into the farthest reaches of Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, and struggles for supremacy between rival chieftains and princes culminated in the Magna Carta ofwhich eventually led to the establishment of Parliament and representative democracy.
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A period of consensus and stability followed the accession to the throne of the Tudor king Henry VII in His successor, Henry VIII, broke with the Catholic church in Rome and declared himself the head of the Church of England. The dissolution of the monasteries and the confiscation of the property of the Roman Catholic church occurred during the Reformation, leading to challenges to the monarchy by rivals who supported Catholicism.
Capitalism existed before the Industrial Revolution, but its development was hampered by technologies limited to water power and a lack of surplus labor. During the period of the Enclosures —A castle overlooks the water in Scotland. Castles dot the countryside in all parts of the United Kingdom. This displaced large numbers of rural people, who were forced to emigrate to the overseas colonies or migrate to the new sites of industrial production.
The term "social class" has complex meanings with social, economic, and political dimensions. Scotland had a national church, the Presbyterian Church of Scotlandalthough much of the highlands remained Catholic. The First Minister chooses different ministers to form the Government. The capital, London, is click on the tidal River Thames in southeastern England. The design with this hole can be a combination of the flags of Britain and Scotland, together with the St. Generally, the english-language is spoken in Great Britain. Treaty of Union and Acts of Union A published version of the Articles of Union, Deeper political integration was a key policy of Queen Anne —14who succeeded to the throne in as the last Stuart monarch of England and Scotland she was also the only Stuart monarch of Great Britain. The Statute of Rhuddlan formally established Edward's rule over Wales two years later although Welsh law continued to be used.
The impetus for the Industrial Revolution came from trade with the expanding colonies by a growing middle class of entrepreneurs and investors whose wealth was not derived from land but from commerce; those entrepreneurs reinvested their wealth in new forms of manufacturing and trade rather than in ways that imitated the consumption patterns of the landed click. Overseas colonization and wars words for a essay other European powers stimulated the further development of mining and metallurgy, precision machine tools, navigational instruments, cartography, and managerial and logistical organization, which were kkingdom for commercial gain by private entrepreneurs.
ByBritain had the world's largest and most powerful navy, and within twenty years steam railways and steam-powered ships designed by British engineers were carrying passengers and cargo for profit, allowing British shipping companies to dominate world trade. By midcentury, the country was the world's leading power in business and finance, engineering, click here, and medicine.
The Industrial Revolution created a new social order as entrepreneurship and factory production resulted in new forms of wealth and work that kingsom added to the agrarian social order dominated by aristocratic landowners. The Reform Act ended the political privileges of landed wealth by extending the vote to middle-class male heads of household. The country would be governed by the beliefs, values, and aspirations of the middle class rather than by those of the landed aristocracy.
One dimension of this new social order was urbanization: The populations of Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, and Birmingham doubled or tripled between andand many major towns and cities grew up around mines, mills, smelting works, ports and railway junctions. Work in the "dark, satanic mills" brought new levels of exploitation and hardship. Rapid industrialization caused overcrowding and disease; cholera epidemics between the s and s provoked public unrest and forced the government to improve public health. Another consequence of Victorian working conditions was the rise of trade unionism.
A socially stratified and politically divided society, that was preoccupied with distinctions of social class and the rival ideologies of laissez-faire capitalism and state socialism soon crystallized. Until the middle of the twentieth century, the United Kingdom was one of the world's wealthiest and most influential nations. Machine tools, locomotives, and steamships built in Scotland and the industrial Midlands were exported worldwide; textile products from Lancashire, Staffordshire china and pottery, Welsh anthracite coal, and finished steel products from Sheffield, dominated world markets for a century.
British mining, manufacturing, transportation technology; legal, banking and parliamentary systems; and scientific discoveries and advances were exported worldwide. The nation's wealth was further underwritten by its position as the chief European colonial power, with captive markets and extensive sources of cheap labor and raw materials in Australasia, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The country's position as a world power was reduced in the second half of the twentieth century by two world wars and the gradual decline of its advantages essay about the united kingdom known as manufacturing and business, the loss of the empire, and expensive experiments with state socialism.
By the late s, the nation was in debt to the International Monetary Fund. The discovery of oil in the North Sea in the s saved the country from bankruptcy and stimulated economic recovery. Tax revenues from the oil industry provided the means to restructure the economy away from an obsolescent manufacturing base and toward a base dominated by service and knowledge-based industries.
The United Kingdom is made up of four interdependent nations with many common institutions.
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While differences in everyday modes of sociality and consumer behavior are not great from one part of the nation to another, some aspects of culture are symbolic of national or local difference on the level of everyday practice or on special occasions. Support for the monarchy, political parties, and soccer teams are the most obvious expressions of contemporary localism; religious adherence and ethnic differentiation are also significant. Support for the monarchy and the Conservative Party is highest in England, especially in the south, while in Scotland and Wales it is substantially lower.
In Scotland and Wales, there are minority nationalist parties.
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The Scottish National Party's political program is dominated by economic issues, particularly tax revenues from North Sea oil. The political agenda of Plaid Cymru, the Welsh nationalist party, is mainly concerned with linguistic and cultural matters. In both Scotland and Wales, the Labour Party is dominant, drawing strength from its critique of the class privilege traditionally associated with London and southeastern England.
The dominance of read more Labour Party in much of Wales and Scotland provides conditions for patronage-style politics. A high degree of spatial integration is generally held to be indicative of social integration, assimilation, and acculturation, while spatial segregation is indicative of social pluralism. Non-European immigration in Britain has not moved toward a pattern of sharply-defined urban ethnic ghettoes.
Nevertheless, many non-European immigrants continue to be subject to discriminatory practices in employment and in other spheres, even if systematic marginalization cannot be inferred from their spatial distribution within the towns and cities of the nation. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Rights to land development were in effect nationalized in by an act of Parliament that removed the right of the owner of a piece of property to change its use and transferred that power to the state.
By the end of the twentieth century, 80 percent of the land area was reserved for agricultural use but was responsible for less than 5 percent of the gross national product and less than 2 percent of employment, yet the land-use planning system has continued to grow in size and power. Speculating in land is big business, and the amount of land available for housing is so restricted that any house within commuting range of a job will command a high price.
The countryside is increasingly seen as an aesthetic and recreational resource for people who live in the towns and cities. However, this image of the countryside is very expensive to maintain. The population is crowded together in towns on tiny plots of land, while much of the open land is underpopulated and underused. Many people in small Cottages in Walthamstow Village, London, England. Housing in or near the cities is in very high demand. Food and Economy Basic Economy.
Finance, manufacturing, and trade form the base of the economy. The pound sterling is the currency, and it is still being debated whether the nation will join with the its European Union partners and adopt the Euro.