Literature review within a research paper
Writing a Literature Review for a Research Paper Writing a literature review seems to be a bit more difficult than first imagined by students. Part of this may be due to the writing experience that students bring with them to the project. What types of papers have you written before? Have you ever tried to synthesize the literature both theoretical and empirical regarding some subject before? Basic tools for writing are the same such as style but the goal of a literature literature review within a research paper in a research paper reseatch somewhat different from other types click the following article writing.
The goal is to bring together what is "known" to sociologists about your research topic literature review within a research paper a way that sets up the "need" for your specific research. You will be looking for unanswered questions, or gaps in the knowledge. You might want to test established ideas on new populations or test a theory using variables measured in different ways.
But you need to always keep in mind the following question: One is to collect reviww on your literature review within a research paper. The other is writing the literature review.
You've probably literature review within a research paper to the library and looked up sociology journals by now. Literaturd most likely had several courses in general sociology and in specialized courses. Maybe you've even had a course in theory. So you have access to a wealth of information. But how do you go through it and make sense of it "one the whole? Below are a set of questions that may help you synthesize the information in a way that will help you write the literature review.
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These questions are only a guide-some suggestions of issues to keep in mind as you read the texts you've accumulated. You will not need to address ALL of these questions in your literature review. What is your dependent variable or topic of interest? How has it been conceptualized and how has it been studied?
Some research is done to test theoretically informed hypotheses, while other research is designed to explore relationships. Either way, most research has some basic questions about why something varies: Why do some couples get divorced and others do not? What determines the number of children women have?
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Why do some people earn higher salaries than others? What leads to success in college?
The dependent variable in the examples above are in order: The first thing you should consider is what is the status of the dependent variable? How many adolescents literatire reported to have used drugs? Have these rates increased lately? What is the current divorce rate? Are literature review within a research paper variable across regions of the country? If variations exist, this might provide a case for your research. What are the theories used to explain the dependent variable? This is sometimes the most difficult part for undergraduates, but of course it is the most important question.
Most of you have had a course or two that introduced you to the dominant paradigms in the discipline. But you may not have applied them to your specific research question. In this case, you will have to do some searching.
Typically it focuses on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B? The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Some scientists may be overly enthusiastic about what wirhin have click, and thus risk giving too much importance to their own findings in the review. Everyone has their own way of getting from point to point. You may already have addressed this question somewhat in answering number one above. You will find research that measures the division of household labor by asking "who does more-you or your partner? How has it been conceptualized and how has it been studied? It is generally helpful to draw a conceptual scheme of the review, e.
You may find that some theories are discussed in the empirical literature, but not always. So you might want to literature review within a research paper out the books used in related classes in sociology. For example, check out the books assigned for the deviance or juvenile delinquency courses. Or, you might think about making an appointment with your advisor or a faculty member in the area of your research to ask for help. What populations have been studied? When reading through the literature, it literature review within a research paper very important to make a note of just who was studied.
If you are studying adolescents you'll want to make sure that you try to locate theories and research on appropriate age groups. This doesn't mean that research on adults or any population that is different than the one you study is not useful, but you do need to think about how relationships differ across groups of people. Varying populations is one of the most common reasons for doing additional research on a topic. If sociologists have been studying primarily urban populations, you might want to see if relationships are similar in more rural settings.
But remember, you really need to think sociologically about this.
Why might you expect relationships to varying across regions see more age groups? How have variables been measured? Another reason for doing research is that you have a new way of looking at your variable s of interest.
Previous research may focus on attitudes about something say divorce and you want to look at a related behavior whether or not couples actually divorce. Another example comes from research on drug use. Let's say you literature review within a research paper to understand why adolescents drink alcohol. There are many ways you can operationalize alcohol use.
Why do some people earn higher salaries than others? Take Notes While Reading If you read the papers first, and only afterwards start writing the review, you will need a very good memory to remember who wrote what, and what your impressions and associations were while reading each single paper. Feedback is vital to writing a good review, and should be sought from a variety of colleagues, so as to obtain a diversity of views on the draft. Summarize and Synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review. As a rule, incorporating feedback from reviewers greatly helps improve a review draft. How will you further your research as a result of the review? Varying populations is one of the most common reasons for doing additional research on a topic. Explains the background of research on a literature review within a research paper.
One way is to know whether or not adolescents have "ever tried" alcohol. Another is "how many times" in the past week or month or year. Still another way to explore alcohol use is literature review within a research paper know "how many drinks are consumed on one occasion. You must first decide specifically what you want to research maybe you did this in answering question number onethen be attentive to how the concept has been check this out in previous research.
This will also be ppaper for your independent variables.
Below are a set of literature review within a research paper that may help you synthesize the information in a way that will help you write the literature review. They may be small, such as doing your research on a local community instead of a regional one. Litfrature, ; Ridley, Diana. With reviews, the usual subdivision of research papers into introduction, methods, results, and discussion does not work or is link used. This may lead in some cases to conflicting views on the merits of the paper, and on how to improve it, but such a situation is better than the absence of feedback. But you may not have applied them to your specific research question. Should I evaluate the sources? See how it works and think about how to make transitions between sections.
Let's say you want to see how the division of household labor affects the level of satisfaction that a person has with their partner. You will find research that measures the division of household labor by asking "who does more-you or your partner? The first measure will allow a general test of the hypothesis: The direst time estimates will allow for a couple of assessments.
One is the issue of just how much time someone spends doing housework. The more time, the more unhappy. But combing estimates of both partners time allows for a more specific test of the first hypothesis: A split may not make a difference for some, but an split in responsibility seems more unfair. Pay attention to how authors have explained these variations. The point is that how variables are measured can lead to the testing of very different hypotheses.
You'll want to be aware of variation in measurement in the literature you read. Have things changed over time? You may already have addressed this question somewhat in answering number one above. You may notice that adolescent alcohol use has actually declined, while use of other drugs has reswarch. This would lead you to doing additional research to understand and explain why these declines in use have occurred.
Could relationships found in previous research be spurious, or vary depending on another control variable? Recall from discussions of causality in social science that we try to researcj three things: You may want to think about how theories you are familiar with would point you to control for certain variables gender, social class, ethnicity, education.
What's new in your research? As you read through the literature and think literaturw the questions above, you will start to notice differences between what you intended to do and what has been done.
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Some of those differences may actually lead you to change your plans. But other differences are what make your research unique or different. They may be small, such as doing your research on a local community instead of a regional one. Or you may be operationalizing some of your variables differently. But small or large, these variations make additions to the literature. The most challenging part will be when you try to theorize what difference it makes.
Actually Writing the Literature Review You now have a lot of ideas about what is known on your topic and how your particular research fits in. There is no set standard for writing up your literature review. Everyone has their own way of getting from point to point. So what follows is one suggested outline. It assumes that you've thought about all seven questions above.
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See how it works and think about how to make transitions between sections. You will need to find what's most comfortable for you. Description of the dependent variable. What is the incidence of it and what has been the major concern by sociologists in studying it. Why are you interested in studying it? Summary of research done using one theory.