Acknowledgements Definition The pzper leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular topic of inquiry. It establishes the scope, context, and significance of the research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of the a sample of a research paper introduction problem supported by a hypothesis or a source of questions, explaining briefly the methodological approach used to examine the research problem, highlighting the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and outlining ijtroduction remaining structure and organization of the paper.
Key Elements of the Research Proposal. Prepared under the direction of the Superintendent and by introvuction Curriculum Design and Writing Team. Baltimore County Public Schools. Importance of a Good Introduction Think of the introduction as a mental inyroduction map that must answer for the reader these four questions: What was I studying.
Why was this topic important to investigate. What did we know about this topic before I did this study. How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding. According to Reyes, there are three overarching goals of a good introduction: A well-written introduction is important because, quite simply, you never get a second chance to make a good first impression. The opening paragraphs of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions.
A vague, disorganized, or error-filled introduction will create a negative impression, whereas, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will lead your readers to think highly of your analytical skills, your writing style, and your research approach. All introductions should conclude with a brief paragraph that describes the organization of the rest of the paper.
A Comparison between Brazilian, Portuguese, and English. A Social Sciences Guide.
Acknowledgements Definition An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: Importance of a Good Abstract Sometimes your professor will ask you to include an abstract, or general summary of your work, with your research paper. The abstract allows you to elaborate upon each major aspect of the paper and helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper.
Therefore, enough key information [e. How do you know when you have enough information in your abstract. A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing a similar study. Does it tell the whole story about your study. If the answer is "no" then the abstract likely needs to be revised. How to Write a Research Abstract.
Office of Undergraduate Research. University of Kentucky; Staiger, David L. Abstracts and the Writing of Abstracts. University of Michigan Press, Structure and Writing Style I. Types of Abstracts To begin, you need to determine which type of abstract you should include with your paper. There are four general types. The researcher evaluates the paper and often compares it with other works on the same subject. Critical abstracts are generally words in length due to the additional interpretive commentary.
These types of abstracts are used infrequently. Descriptive Abstract A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the learn more here, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract only describes the work being summarized.
Some researchers consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short, words or less. Informative Abstract The majority of abstracts are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it.
Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval.
If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source. STATE YOUR THESIS Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief.
The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE All points must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. Example of an outline: BODY - Shakespeare's Early Life, Marriage, Works, Later Years A.
Early life in Stratford 1. Life of Anne Hathaway b. Reference in Shakespeare's Poems More info. Romeo and Juliet b. Much Ado About Nothing c. Shakespeare's Later Years 1. Last two plays 2. Retired to Stratford a. Epitaph on his tombstone III. Shakespeare's early life 2. Shakespeare's later years B. Concluding statement The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other.
Using Transition Words for Research Papers that Exceed Expectations August 19, - Posted to Writing Tweet Transition Words for Research Papers When students write research papers, they tend to become hyper-focused on research, factual accuracy, and proving their thesis. After all, these are all very important in a research paper. Unfortunately, this leaves the matter of writing style this web page in many cases.
One area that is neglected the most is proper use of transition words for research papers. Research paper transition words are words and phrases that you can use to move from one idea to the next, to show a connection between two ideas, or to contrast two ideas. Transition words can be used as a means to move from one paragraph into another, or within a single paragraph. If transition words and worxs are not used, or if they are used incorrectly, your research paper will have a very choppy and awkward feel to it when others attempt to read it.
Using Transition Words Effectively Research papers are all about getting information to the readers. Transition words and phrases are tools that you can use to get that information onto the page in a way that is as readable as possible. The best way to use transition words and phrases is to think about what you want to do with the information that you have. For example, are you adding details to an idea or support to a fact. Are you moving from one idea to the next. Are you preparing to present some information that contradicts your current idea.
Basically, you use transition words and phrases to do the following: Show the passage of time Use words and phrases such as next, before, after, first, second, third, then, a while later, or finally To tesearch Use words and phrases such as in other words, in summary, to repeat, or, in brief To contrast and compare Use words and phrases like in contrast, in comparison, however, like, unlike, or on the other hand To Support Use words and phrases like furthermore, as evidence shows, proving, or since.
To add to an idea Use words and phrases such as also, next, in addition to that, or furthermore To show an exception Use words and phrases such as however, but, except, or never the less To shift focus to a new idea Use words and phrases like moving forward, next, or another thing to consider To demonstrate with an example Try using words and phrases such as for example, to demonstrate, consider this, or for instance Focusing on Organization When organization must really be the focus transitions are key.
If you are trying to write a well-organized research paper, transition words and phrases are your friend. You can use them to smoothly transition from paragraph to the next, and from one point to the next. If you are having a difficult time using transition words, you may transition words for a research paper to resequence some of your ideas and paragraphs eords that they are better organized.
Moving Beyond Transitions As established, you must use transition words for organization and readability. There are however other things to be considered when writing a research paper. For example, if you need to generate interesting research paper ideasgesearch can look at some of the other blog posts at grabmyessay. If you need advice on using citations in each work that you trwnsitionyou can ask your instructor for clarification on what they want you to do.
Finally, if you need transotion writing help, you can contact grabmyessay..
In theory, this is the easiest part to write, because it is a straightforward commentary of exactly what you observed and found. Writing a Results Section Too Much Information. The results section is not for interpreting the results in findints way; that belongs strictly in the discussion section.
You should aim to narrate your findings without trying to interpret or evaluate them, other than to provide a link to the discussion section. For example, you may have noticed an unusual correlation between two variables during the analysis of your results. It is correct to point this out in the results section. Speculating why this correlation is happening, and postulating about what may be happening, belongs in the discussion section. It is very easy to put too much information into the results section and obscure your findings underneath reams of irrelevance. If you make a table of your findings, you do not need to insert a graph highlighting the same data.
If you have a table of results, refer to it in the text, but do not repeat the figures - duplicate information will be penalized. One common way of getting around this is to be less specific in the text. For example, if the result in table one shows Table One shows that almost a quarter of…. Tips for Writing a Results Section Perhaps the best way to use the results section is to show the most relevant information in the graphs, figures and tables. The text, conversely, is used to direct the reader to those, also clarifying any unclear points. The text should also act as a link to the discussion section, highlighting any correlations and findings and leaving plenty of open questions.
How to Write a Strong Discussion in Scientific Manuscripts Release Date: May 3, Category: A strong Discussion section provides a great deal of analytical depth. Your goal should be to critically analyze and interpret the findings of your study. You should place your findings in the context of published literature and describe how your study moves the field forward. It is often easy to organize the key elements of a Discussion section into distinct paragraphs or groups of paragraphs.
Summarize the major gap in understanding that your work is attempting to fill. What was the overarching hypothesis. In the first few sentences of the Discussion, state the main problem that you were trying to address. Although this should relate to the information that you provided in the Introduction, this paragraph should not repeat statements that have already been made. Why is filling this gap important. How will answering this question move the field forward. After identifying the problem, state the main reason that this study was needed. Describe how answering this specific research question will make a significant contribution to your field.
EGFR-overexpressing cancers are highly aggressive and have a higher tendency to metastasize. Currently, available drugs specifically target the EGFR and elicit high response rates. However, the majority of patients eventually develop progressive disease. The mechanisms through which cancers escape EGFR-targeted therapies remain unclear. Identification of specific molecules that mediate resistance to EGFR-directed treatments will facilitate the development of novel therapies and may improve responses to currently available therapies. This paragraph provides a critical analysis of your major finding s.
What was your overall approach for studying the gap. In one or two sentences, state the main models or strategies that you used to study this specific research question.
Choosing Your Topic 1 Ask yourself important questions. Although you may be limited by specific classroom or work related guidelines, choosing your topic is the first and most important step in your research paper project. Regardless of whether your topic can be anything you want or has rigid requirements, it is important to keep a few questions in mind: Is there enough research available on this topic. Is the topic new and unique enough that I can offer fresh opinions.
Whenever possible, choose a topic that you feel passionate about. Writing about something you enjoy certainly shows in the final product, making it more likely that you will be successful writing a paper about something you enjoy. If you are writing a research paper for a class, consider the other students.
Is it likely that they will also be writing about your topic. How can you keep your paper unique and interesting if everyone is writing about the same thing. Asking a professor for help may seem frightening, but if they are worth anything as a professor, they want you to be successful with your work, and will do what they can to make that happen. Although it requires a bit more time, you have the ability to change your topic even after you begin researching others.
Method Researching 1 Begin your research. With a topic selected, the next step is to begin research. Research comes in numerous forms including web pages, journal articles, books, encyclopedias, interviews, and blog posts, among others. Take time to look for professional resources who offer valid research and insight into your topic.
Try to use a minimum of five sources to vary your information; never rely on only sources. Whenever possible, look for peer-reviewed empirical research. These are articles or books written by experts in your field of interest, whose work has been read and vouched for by other experts in the same field. These can be found in scientific journals or via an online search. Take a trip to your local library or university library. Although it may seem old fashioned, libraries are chock full of helpful research materials from books to newspapers and magazines to journals.
Acknowledgements Definition The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction.
Importance of a Good Discussion This section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation. Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research.
If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described. Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information. San Francisco Edit, Structure and Source Style These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: Do not be verbose or repetitive Be concise and make your points clearly Avoid using jargon Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes II.
The Content The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: If appropriate, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in relation to the research problem. References to previous research: This can include re-visiting key sources already cited in your literature review section, or, save them to cite later in the discussion section if they are more important to compare with your results instead of being a part of the general literature review of research used to provide context and background information.
Note that you can make this decision to highlight specific studies after you have begun writing the discussion section. For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a situation, or highlighting best practices. This can be framed as new research questions that emerged as a result of your analysis. Organization and Structure Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid.
Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in your introduction. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective.
The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix]. The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. A good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings.
This part of the discussion should begin with a description of any unanticipated findings, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each them in the order they appeared as you gathered or analyzed the data.
The exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings.