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How to Write a Strong Discussion in Scientific Manuscripts Release Date: May 3, Category: A strong Discussion section provides a great deal of analytical depth. Your goal should be to critically analyze and interpret the findings of your study. You should place your findings in the context of published literature and describe how your study moves the field forward. It is often easy to organize the key elements of a Discussion section into distinct paragraphs or groups of paragraphs.
Summarize the major gap in understanding that your work is attempting to fill. What was the overarching hypothesis. In the first few sentences of the Discussion, state the main problem that you were trying to address. Although this should relate to the information that you provided in the Introduction, this paragraph should not repeat statements that have already been made. Why is filling this gap important. How will answering this question move the field forward. After identifying the problem, state the main reason that this study was needed. Describe how answering this specific research question will make a significant contribution to your field.
EGFR-overexpressing cancers are highly aggressive and have a higher tendency to metastasize. Currently, available drugs specifically target the EGFR and elicit high response rates. However, the majority of patients eventually develop progressive disease. The mechanisms through which cancers escape EGFR-targeted therapies remain unclear. Identification of specific molecules that mediate resistance to EGFR-directed treatments will facilitate the development of novel therapies and may improve responses to currently available therapies. This paragraph provides a critical analysis of your major finding s.
What was your overall approach for studying the gap. In one or two sentences, state the main models or strategies that you used to study this specific research question.
The Good and The Evil of the Internet words - 3 pages The onset of computers on the general population has given a boost to the Economy in the world's market. People who weren't much aware of the world became drawn to computers, which in turn brought about the Internet, connecting the world all over. The Internet has played a major role in the lives of people all over the world. Now, it is not limited to just Internet Addiction Essay words - 7 pages Internet Addiction Introduction While some media news and reports seem to be truthful in their effort to inform and educate the public regarding internet addiction, it is not surprising to see bad science and misinterpretation presented in others on the same issue.
The media coverage of internet addiction is damaging and blowing the issue out of context. The widespread internet concern is reinforced and underpinned by media reporting about Also this has drawn increasing attention due to popularity of the emerging social net like Facebook and Twitter in recent years.
While some advocate that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, others argue that an Internet Usage Among Different Gender of IIUM Students words - 8 pages In the world of education especially among the students at the level of higher learning institutions, the use of Internet as a medium of gaining information is being concerned. Oxford dictionaries perceived the word of Internet as: A Review Paper of Internet Banking Services words - 7 pages Today, Information Technology revolutionized our life almost in every filed.
One of among several blessing of information technology is Internet Banking services that brings ease and comfort for our banking activities. Over few years Internet Banking has evolved as convenient, self-serviced technology, cost-reducing and time saving channel. Internet banking is available 24x7 across geographies.
In last few years, the number of internet banking People can use the internet to communicate with the other from all over the world, business can do their work over the internet, and student can take a class online. Internet is allowing people have more conveniences on their live. It is become one of the most important technological innovations in human The Effects of Technology words - 3 pages Abstract Technology has revolutionized the way people communicate, people now behave different thanks to the Internet and new habits have been acquired.
Not long ago the only way to connect to the Internet was through a connected cable to your computer and a server's provider and now you can connect without the cable by means of a wireless Positive and Negative Aspects of the Internet words - 2 pages Information has never been as easily and quickly available as it is today. The airwaves are filled with all sorts of news which can be accessed at the touch of a button twenty-hours a day. This has provided a greater choice for the consumers. However, even just as we are getting used to it, more is on the way. Technological advances, like the digital television and the Internet, promise to take the quantity and speed of the news one stage It was created in and grew rapidly beyond its largely academic origin into an increasingly commercial and popular medium.
The original uses of The benefits of internet essay examples and Education words - 4 pages ICT has a huge range of functions in education such as; communication, learning tools, administration, information sources and distance learning. ICT has therefore had quite an impact on education; for instance, the National Curriculum demands children be taught to use computers early on so as they progress into secondary, further and higher education, they are then adept in utilising applications software.
You need to be able to organise and structure your book. You need to be able to look at research ideally offline. But, when it comes to choosing the best writing software, it can be hard to pick the right one. Different writers need different aids, and it all depends on your format, your writing style, and your own personal preferences. There are some differences between them, so the choice is down to your personal preference and budget although they are all very affordable.
It helps you organise your work, keep track or it you can set word count targetsand you can read more output a print-ready version of your book. Great for staying off the wifi. And this is a key distinction between the different software we showcase here, so if being distraction-free is important, then rule out those that rely on you being online like Noisli and Book Writer.
With a corkboard-and-index-cards approach to organisation, Scrivener works exactly the way we might plan a book on paper. You can break your writing down into manageable chunks without losing the thread. Where it comes out on top is chapter sidebar and outline screen that allow you to always keep a visual tab on the development of your novel, and add in notes and ideas on the fly. You can keep your research in best software to write a novel documents from the manuscript, and you have a choice of views — including a full screen view to help you stay away from internet temptation.
Scrivener also allows you to recall past work, deleted paragraphs, a previous drafts without much effort. Second to its simplicity is the way it keeps your work organised. This is an important part of any process because a book becomes too big to see and edit in a single document to say nothing of the risk of losing it unsaved if Word crashes. But you can organise your work in Scrivener this way as well.
Choosing Your Topic 1 Ask yourself important questions. Although you may be limited by specific classroom or work related guidelines, choosing your topic is the first and most important step in your research paper project. Regardless of whether your topic can be anything you want or has rigid requirements, it is important to keep a few questions in mind: Is there enough research available on this topic. Is the topic new and unique enough that I can offer fresh opinions.
Whenever possible, choose a topic that you feel passionate about. Writing about something you enjoy certainly shows in the final product, making it more likely that you will be successful writing a paper about something you enjoy. If you are writing a research paper for a class, consider the other students.
Is it likely that they will also be writing about your topic. How can you keep your paper unique and interesting if everyone is writing about the same thing. Asking a professor for help may seem frightening, but if they are worth anything as a professor, they want you to be successful with your work, and will do what they can to make that happen. Although it requires a bit more time, you have the ability to change your topic even after you begin researching others.
Method Researching 1 Begin your research. With a topic selected, the next step is to begin research. Research comes in numerous forms including web pages, journal articles, books, encyclopedias, interviews, and blog posts, among others. Take time to look for professional resources who offer valid research and insight into your topic.
Try to use a minimum of five sources to vary your information; never rely on only sources. Whenever possible, look for peer-reviewed empirical research. These are articles or books written by experts in your field of interest, whose work has been read and vouched for by other experts in the same field. These can be found in scientific journals or via an online search. Take a trip to your local library or university library. Although it may seem old fashioned, libraries are chock full of helpful research materials from books to newspapers and magazines to journals.
Use them wisely and sparingly, and never use one without knowing its precise meaning. Implied or Conceptual Transitions Not every paragraph transition requires a conjunctive adverb or transitional phrase; often, your logic will appear through a word or concept common to the last sentence of the preceding paragraph and the topic sentence of the following paragraph.
For examples of transition sentences in essays, the end of a paragraph by Bruce Catton uses a demonstrative adjective, "these," to modify the subject of the topic sentence so that it will refer to a noun in the last sentence of the preceding paragraph: Grant and Robert E. Lee met in the parlor of here modest house at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, These men were bringing the Civil War to its virtual finish. In link transition by Kori Quintana in an article about radiation and health problems, the connection between the paragraphs resides in the common term of "my family": What I did not know when I began researching the connection between radioactivity and genetic damage was that I would find the learn more here cause of my own family's battle with cancer and other health problems.
Hailing from Utah, the state known for its Mormon population's healthy lifestyle, my family has been plagued with a number of seemingly unrelated health problems. The first paragraph outlines the origins of Quintana's research into the connection between radiation exposure and disease, and ends with the revelation that her own family had been affected transsition radiation. The next paragraph discusses her family's health history. Each has its own singular purpose and topic, yet eaxmples first paragraph leads to the topic of the second through a transitiln term.
Paragraph transitions can expand the range of discussion as well as narrow it with an example, as Quintana's transition does; this selection from an article by Deborah Cramer on the ecological impact of the fishing industry shows how a single instance of overfishing indicates a world-wide problem: The large yearly catches, peaking at million pounds from the Gulf of Maine inwiped out the fishery.
It has yet to recover. The propensity to ravage the sea is by no means unique to New Exampples. The northern cod tranition in Canada is closed indefinitely. In Newfoundland more than 20, fishermen and fish processors were abruptly put out of work in when the government shut down the Grand Banks Here, the transition alludes to the entire preceding section about New England fishing.
Although Cramer managed this transition in a single sentence, transitions between large sections of an essay sometimes require entire paragraphs to explain their logic. Proofreading Paragraph Transitions At some point in your editing process, look at the end of each paragraph examples of transition sentences in essays see how it connects to the first sentence of the paragraph following it.
If the connection seems missing or strained, improve the transition by clarifying your logic or rearranging the paragraphs. Often, the best solution is cutting out a paragraph altogether, and replacing it with the right one..
Business Plan Basics The business plan is a tool to help you find and explore opportunities. Students at any level of education can use the concept of preparing a business plan as to write a business plan junior method of exploring all kinds of ideas for starting a business. It is merely a series of questions that lead you to think about the requirements and the possibilities of any kind of business. Until you start to ask these questions, you aren't able to visualize the details necessary to be successful in a business.
There are many different approaches to writing a business plan, some more complex than others. But the basic components of a business plan can be organized as follows: WHY DEVELOP A PLAN. The process of making choices is the most important reason for anyone to learn how to write a business plan. It is fun to think of yourself as a business owner, to dream about your successes, and to talk about your ideas. But when you have to answer the specific questions of a business plan, you must make decisions about the direction your business will take But, no problem, then you can go back and make different decisions until you find a way to be successful.
We sometimes hear people arguing that business owners don't always have a business plan Once you are into the day-to-day operations of a business it may be too late. But most banks value a good business plan when you are looking for funds for your business. And in our educational system it is one tool that can be used to provide learning experiences that open students to the opportunities in their own community. As a teacher, you can use the business plan as a learning activity at all levels of education. For very young students it can be included as part of a simulation about the processes of business.
It can reinforce skills being taught in math, communications, spelling, art, and computer skills. In fact a teacher of history or geography could use the business creativity approach to identifying ways to start a business using their curriculum as the source of ideas. It could give students a closer feeling of what it was like to live in different times in history, or in different parts of the world.
Acknowledgements Definition The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated, and to explain any new understanding or insights about the problem after you've taken the findings into consideration. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction.
Importance of a Good Discussion This section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Most effectively demonstrates your ability as a researcher to think critically about an issue, to develop creative solutions to problems based upon a logical synthesis of the findings, and to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem under investigation. Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research.
If appropriate, the discussion section is also where you state how the findings from your study revealed new gaps in the literature that had not been previously exposed or adequately described. Engage the reader in thinking critically about issues based upon an evidence-based interpretation of findings; it is not governed strictly by objective reporting of information. San Francisco Edit, Structure and Source Style These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: Do not be verbose or repetitive Be concise and make your points clearly Avoid using jargon Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes II.
The Content The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: If appropriate, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in relation to the research problem. References to previous research: This can include re-visiting key sources already cited in your literature review section, or, save them to cite later in the discussion section if they are more important to compare with your results instead of being a part of the general literature review of research used to provide context and background information.
Note that you can make this decision to highlight specific studies after you have begun writing the discussion section. For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a situation, or highlighting best practices. This can be framed as new research questions that emerged as a result of your analysis. Organization and Structure Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid.
Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in your introduction. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective.
The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix]. The order of interpreting each major finding should be in the same order as they were described in your results section. A good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings.
This part of the discussion should begin with a description of any unanticipated findings, followed by a brief interpretation as to why you believe it appeared and, if necessary, its possible significance in relation to the overall study. If more than one unexpected finding emerged during the study, describe each them in the order they appeared as you gathered or analyzed the data.
The exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings.
Alicia Taylor Alicia has taught students of all ages and has a master's degree in Education This lesson explains what it is to write contrsat compare and contrast essay. For the student who needs to describe two subjects, a compare and contrast essay offers the opportunity to explore the similarities and differences of a topic. Why Compare and Contrast. When studying a particular subject, students are often asked to write essays that compare and contrast various aspects of that area of study. It is common to be assigned to write essays in all areas of study, not just when taking a composition course.
For example, in a social studies course, a class is working on a unit about the places where people live: The instructor assigns everyone a compare and contrast essay on life in a city compared to life on a farm. The instructions are such that the essay must both compare, provide similarities, qnd contrast, provide differences, for living in both types of areas. How would a student get started. How would this essay be structured. A strong, well-written, and kf compare and contrast essay will show the instructor that the writer understands the differences between life in the city and life on the farm.
Definition Compare and contrast essays are multi-paragraph compositions that explain ways in which two or occasionally more subjects are similar and different. In these essays, compare means describing similarities between the subjects. The essay on farmlife versus city would provide at least one paragraph on how people's lives in the city are like the lives of the compatison that live annd a farm. Basically, the comparison tells what they have in common. When a writer contrasts two things, he or she explains ways in which they are different.
After completing a unit of study on where people live, students should be able to provide several details about how life on a farm can be vastly different from life in contrasf city. Again, compare and contrast essays can cover almost any topic and may pop up in a variety of subject areas. In order to make decisions about what to include, writers need to keep one thing in mind: Relevance helps determine which characteristics are worth comparing and contrasting. Your thesis will help you determine the relevance, or irrelevance, example of comparison and contrast essay writing facts.
That means writers need a strong thesis statement.